CONTENT: What do you see?

FORM: The details (what you see more exactly). How the artist delivers the content.

CONTEXT: Everything NOT observable.

FUNCTION: The intended purpose of the work.




UNIT SHEET: below 





Cross Cultural Connections Unit Sheet

APAH 250 Images:

Cross Cultural Connections Unit Sheet

81. Frontispiece of the Codex Mendoza 
90. Angel with Arquebus, Asiel Timor Dei, Master of Calamarca 
94. Screen with Siege of Belgrade and hunting scene 

95. The Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe), Miguel González 
97. Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo, attributed to Juan Rodríguez Juárez 

99. Portrait of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Miguel Cabrera 

118. The Valley of Mexico from the Hillside of Santa Isabel, José María Velasco 

Other works involving
"Cross Cultural" connections
APAH 250 Images:

220. Tamati waka Nene, Gottfried Lindaur 

188. Basin (Baptistère de Saint Louis), Mohammed ibn al-Zain 

163. Bandolier Bag 
165. Painted elk hide, attributed to Cotsiogo (Cadzi Cody) 

166. Black-on-black ceramic vessel, Maria Martínez and Julian Martínez 

212. Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan 


  • Colonial Latin America: mix of indigenous art forms with European materials

  • Influences of subject matter and forms from Asia and Africa

  • Subject matter does vary: religious, portraits, history, genre scenes

  • Resembles art from Spain and southern Europe

  • Columbus landed in the Bahamas in 1492 = conquest --> colonization!

  • Europe brought disease which wiped out much of the Aztecs and Native Americans

  • Children born of Spanish and Native Americans are called mestizos

  • Spanish heavily desired gold, silver, crops

  • Patronage: Spanish commissioned Native Americans = Catholicism with Native American traditions

  • Artists: Many are anonymous, the point was to not have fame and glory

Questions to ask and answer while studying the works above:
1.  Who is the patron of the work?
     Does this patron have an identifiable "agenda" (or motivations) in commissioning this work?
2.  Who is the intended audience?
     What would be the intended audiences response to this work?
3.  What are the different possible meanings for respective audiences (indigenous cultures, the patron's        colonizing culture, contemporary culture, present-day audience)?
4.  Why is there an appropriation of a style (usually European) to present a "new world" subject matter?
5.  What political and/or social issues predicate the cultural "colonization" of indigenous cultures?
6.  What is the significance of specific materials and art making techniques in making the work?


A very special thank you to Dr. Robert Coad for his infinite wisdom, amazing workshops, gift of materials and time, and years of support.

Another special thank you to Ms. Marsha Russell for her devotion to teaching and generosity in sharing her materials and knowledge with all of us.

Thank you to Valerie Park for her inspirational AP Art History web site that guided the creation of this site.

And finally, if you choose to use any of the images or information from this site, I ask that you kindly give me credit.  Thank you for visiting!