EUROPE - 200-1325 CE

MEDIEVAL ART Part 1: Early Christian, Byzantine, Migratory
MEDIEVAL ART Part 2: Romanesque     MEDIEVAL ART Part 3: Gothic 

Early Christian

48 - Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, Italy, Greek Chapel.jpg
48 - Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, Italy, Greek Chapel.jpg
48 - Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, Italy, Good Shepherd fresco.jpg
48 - Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, Italy, Good Shepherd fresco.jpg
48 - Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, Italy, orant fresco.jpg
48 - Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome, Italy, orant fresco.jpg
49 - Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy.jpg
49 - Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy.jpg
49 - Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy nave.jpg
49 - Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy nave.jpg
49 - Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy - plan.jpg
49 - Santa Sabina, Rome, Italy - plan.jpg

In the European West, Medieval art is often broken into smaller periods. These date ranges vary by location.

c.500-800 – Early Medieval Art
c.780-900 – Carolingian Art
c.900-1000 – Ottonian Art
c.1000-1200 – Romanesque Art
c.1200-1400 – Gothic Art

                                               (Dr. Nancy Ross)

CONTENT: What do you see?

FORM: The details (what you see more exactly). How the artist delivers the content.

CONTEXT: Everything NOT observable.

FUNCTION: The intended purpose of the work.

Assignments:

READINGS: 

UNIT SHEET: below

 

SNAPSHOT Sheet:

APAH 250 Images:

48. Catacomb of Priscilla (Greek Chapel, Orant, Good Shepherd frescos) 
49. Santa Sabina 

* Old St. Peter’s

* Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

Medieval Part 1 Unit Sheet

​​

Vocabulary

Gospels
loculi
lunette
narthex
nave
Orant figure
spolia
​transept

ambulatory
apse
atrium
basilica plan (axial plan)
catacomb
central plan
clerestory
coffer
cubical
 

 Medieval Part 1 Unit Sheet

Byzantine

50 - Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well  from the Vienna Genesis.jpg
50 - Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well from the Vienna Genesis.jpg
50 - Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis..jpg
50 - Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis..jpg
51 - San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy sim to list.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy sim to list.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy interior.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy interior.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy Plan (rotated).jpg
51 - San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy Plan (rotated).jpg
51 - San Vitale, Justinian and His Attendants.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Justinian and His Attendants.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Theodora and Attendants.jpg
51 - San Vitale, Theodora and Attendants.jpg
52 - Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul) interior 2
52 - Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul) interior 2
52 - Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul), exterior
52 - Hagia Sophia. Constantinople (Istanbul), exterior

READINGS: 

UNIT SHEET: below

 

SNAPSHOT Sheet:

Assignments:
cathedral
chalice
codex
continuous narrative
Eucharist
Genesis
Icon
Iconostasis
mosaic
paten
pendentive
squinch
​Theotokos
Vocabulary

APAH 250 Images:

52. Hagia Sophia 

51. San Vitale (including Justinian and Theodora panels) 

54. Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George 

50. Vienna Genesis (Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob)

Migratory
53 - Merovingian looped fibula
53 - Merovingian looped fibula
55 - Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Matthew, cross-carpet page
55 - Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Matthew, cross-carpet page

St Matthew, cross-carpet page

55 - Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Luke portrait page
55 - Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Luke portrait page

St. Luke portrait page

55 - Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Luke incipit page c2
55 - Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Luke incipit page c2

St. Luke incipit page

Assignments:

READINGS: 

UNIT SHEET: below

 

SNAPSHOT Sheet:

APAH 250 Images:

53. Merovingian looped fibulae

55. Lindisfarne Gospels, St. Matthew, cross-carpet page; St. Luke incipit page  

cloisonne
codex 
fibula 
gospels
horror vacui
parchment (vellum)
scriptorium
​zoomorphic
Vocabulary
MEDIEVAL ART Part 2: Romanesque 

Romanesque

58 - Conques, France.jpg
58 - Conques, France.jpg
58 - Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France.jpg
58 - Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France.jpg
58 - Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France, nave.jpg
58 - Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France, nave.jpg
58 - Reliquary in Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France.jpg
58 - Reliquary in Church of Sainte-Foy, Conques, France.jpg
59 - Bayeux Tapestry, cavalry attack.jpg
59 - Bayeux Tapestry, cavalry attack.jpg
59 - Bayeux Tapestry, First meal.jpg
59 - Bayeux Tapestry, First meal.jpg

Assignments:

READINGS: 

UNIT SHEET: below

 

SNAPSHOT Sheet:

Romanesque Unit Sheet

APAH 250 Images:

APAH 250 Images:

58. ​Church of Sainte-Foy
     - Reliquary of Sainte-Foy
     - Tympanum of Sainte-Foy (the Last Judgment)
59. Bayeux Tapestry

 
Vocabulary

portal
reliquary
rib vault
tapestry
transept

transverse arch
triformium
trumeau
tympanum
voussoir

campanile
embroidery
jamb
Last Judgment

ambulatory
apse
arcade
archivolt
bay


 

Romanesque Unit Sheet
Slide01
Slide02
Slide03
Slide04
Slide05
Slide06
Slide07
Slide08
Slide09
Slide10
Slide11
Slide12
Slide13
Slide14
Slide15
Slide16
Slide17
Slide18
Slide19
Slide20
Slide21
Slide22
Slide23
Slide24
Slide25
Slide26
Slide27
Slide28
Slide29
Slide30
Slide31
Slide32
Slide33
Slide34
Slide35
Slide37
Slide38
Slide39
Slide40
Slide41
Slide42
Slide43

10 Characteristics of the Romanesque style (Matt Curess)

  1. First international style since the Roman Empire (Germany, Normandy, England, Tuscany)
  2. Competition for the largest church (Pisa Cathedral)
  3. Mansonry (no concrete)
  4. East end of church is the religious focal point for services
  5. Portals act as a "billboard" for elements of faith (The Last Judgement) 
  6. Cruciform plans, church as a metaphor for heaven
  7. Plans/elevation based on basilican forms
  8. Bays divide the nave into compartments
  9. Rounded arches are the norm
  10. Tripartite division of the elevation continues from earlier periods
     
MEDIEVAL ART Part 3: Gothic 

Gothic

60 - Chartres Cathedral, Viewed from south 1 of 6.png
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Viewed from south 1 of 6.png
60 - Chartres Cathedral, West facade 2 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, West facade 2 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, West Portal 3 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, West Portal 3 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Nave c2, 4 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Nave c2, 4 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Plan 6 of 6.jpg
60 - Chartres Cathedral, Plan 6 of 6.jpg
61_-_Dedication_Page_with_Blanche_of_Castile_and_King_Louis_IX_of_France,_from_a
61_-_Dedication_Page_with_Blanche_of_Castile_and_King_Louis_IX_of_France,_from_a
61_-_Dedication_Page_with_Scenes_from_the_Apocalypse,_from_a_Bible_moralisée.jpg
61_-_Dedication_Page_with_Scenes_from_the_Apocalypse,_from_a_Bible_moralisée.jpg
62 - Röttgen Pietà.jpg
62 - Röttgen Pietà.jpg

Assignments:

READINGS: 

UNIT SHEET: below

 

SNAPSHOT Sheet:

Gothic Unit Sheet

APAH 250 Images:

60. Chartres Cathedral 
      - West, North, South Portals
      - Notre Dame de la Bella Verriere

* Rheim Cathedral – Visitation/jamb statues

* Strasbourg Cathedral – Death of the Virgin    

   tympanum

* Naumburg Cathedral – Ekkehard and Uta
61. Dedication Page with Blanche of Castile and

   King Louis IX of France

62. Röttgen Pietà 

* Visitation, jamb statues, Reim Cathedral

* The Virgin of Paris

* The Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreaux reliquary

Need to Know Vocabulary:
gargoyles
lux nova
pinnacle
crocket
oculus
vault webbing
fan vaulting
quatrefoil/trefoils
Cult of the Virgin
portal
Rayonnant style
Flamboyant style
Perpendicular style
pointed arch
ambulatory
ribbed groin vault
flying buttress
nave arcade
triforium
tribunal gallery
aisle
nave
ambulatory
clerestory
choir
stringcourse
Gothic Unit Sheet

Key Ideas:

  • "Gothic" term coined by the historian Georgia Vasari during the Renaissance. Originially meant to be derogative as he thought the gothic style was crude and ugly.
  • Perfected the Romanesque style (ribbed vaults, groin vaults, pointed arches, and clerestories.
  • The quest for Height and Light is very important. The higher the architecture, the closer to God you'll be. Light is the manifestation of God known as lux nova, new light.
  • Sculpture/reliefs are higher in relief and emphasizes the verticality of the architecture.
  • Women were no longer considered "handmaidens of the devil". The Cult of the Virgin replaced a previous veneration of Eve, the great sinner.
  • Saint Denis is the first fully Gothic structure in France. The ambulatory becomes the new focus. Abbot Suger is credited to creating this new gothic style. He believed the church should be of great beauty. The more grand, the closer to God the worshipper could become.